Cystitis - an inflammatory lesion of the bladder, accompanied by a number of unpleasant symptoms.
Pathology is dangerous because of its tendency to rapid chronicity. Also, untreated cystitis can lead to serious consequences for the patient's health. Therefore, having noticed suspicious symptoms in oneself, the patient should immediately consult a urologist.
Women more often than men suffer from cystitis, since their urethra is shorter. Therefore, pathogens are much easier to penetrate into it. It is necessary to treat cystitis, otherwise damage to the kidneys, as well as organs of the female reproductive system - the uterus and appendages is not excluded.
Causes and risk factors
Cystitis in most cases has an infectious - bacterial or fungal - character. The penetration of bacteria or fungi into the bladder can be done in several ways:
- descending - from other organs of the urinary system;
- ascending - from the urethra or perianal region;
- lymphogenous - from organs located in the pelvic zone;
- from adjacent organs affected by infectious-inflammatory process.
In women, cystitis most often develops through ascending infection. Equally important in this case is the work of the immune system: if it is impaired, and with it there are functional or structural disorders of the bladder, the occurrence of the disease becomes a matter of time.
Cystitis can develop under the influence of certain factors:
- weakening of immunity;
- prolonged or severe hypothermia;
- hormonal disorders or changes (including pregnancy, menstruation, lactation, menopause);
- diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in the urethra or bladder;
- long course of antibiotic therapy;
- radiation or chemotherapy;
- psycho-emotional disorders.
Symptoms of inflammation of the bladder
The intensity and some features of the clinical picture depend on the nature of the course of cystitis. In acute form, the symptoms will be sharply expressed; in chronic, they will be blurred, dull. Or he may not show himself at all.
Acute cystitis is accompanied by:
- frequent urination;
- the release of a small amount of urine when emptying the bladder;
- lower abdominal pain: weak at first, then more intense;
- burning in the area of the external genital organs;
- sharply during urination, which can sometimes give to the rectum;
- turbidity of urine;
- the appearance of leukocytes in the blood;
- urinary incontinence;
- low-grade fever;
The appearance of cystitis can not be ignored. The disease will not go away on its own; instead, it can lead to serious complications, therefore, when symptoms previously considered appear, an urologist should be urgently referred to.
Bladder inflammation treatment
In women, the treatment of acute cystitis is different from that prescribed for the chronic course of the pathological process. This is due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the urinary system, and the presence of certain factors and pathogenic microflora present in the urinary tract.
Nutrition and Diet
When cystitis is important to follow the rules of nutrition, developed by a doctor. Usually they are based on:
- eating foods that have a diuretic effect;
- excluding or reducing the dose of salt consumed per day;
- rejection of spicy foods;
- reducing the amount of protein consumed;
- complete rejection of fat;
- exclusion of sugar and its substitutes from the diet.
It should be borne in mind that the diet menu should not cause constipation. You should also pay attention to the method of cooking: it is better to steam it, or cook food. Smoking, frying, salting are strictly prohibited.
Aggravated disease gives a lot of trouble and inconvenience. Typically, the duration of symptoms does not exceed 7 days, but throughout them it is necessary that the diet is particularly strict. It is important to ensure proper washing of the urinary tract in order to quickly remove the causative agent from the body.
Per day it is necessary to drink 2 - 2.5 liters of liquid. This may be simple or sodium chloride water, sugarless fruit compote, homemade fresh juices. Pumpkin juice has diuretic properties, and anti-inflammatory - fruit drinks made from cranberries or cranberries.
Based on the previously considered aspects of the diet, you can easily create a menu yourself. For breakfast, it is recommended to eat cereals from any kind of cereals, for lunch - vegetable soup, salad with vegetable oil dressing or meat and steam dishes. Dinner is light, vegetable or fruit.
Medicines for cystitis: TOP 10 drugs
It is impossible to choose pills for cystitis by yourself - a therapist or a urologist should do this. There are a lot of drugs for this disease, so a patient without a proper education can easily be mistaken.
It is extremely important to know what is the route of exposure of the medical preparation to the organs of the urinary system. The fact is that many drugs are excreted by the kidneys, but, at the same time, they are quite easily delivered to the urinary tract.
These are the most popular drugs used to treat cystitis. They give quick relief of symptoms, stop inflammation. However, in chronic cystitis, as in other cases, taking them too often is not recommended, because bacteria can develop resistance to them.
The appointment of fluoroquinolones is contraindicated in children under 15 years of age. In adult patients, treatment with these drugs can be carried out only if the antibiotics of other groups are ineffective.
- Norfloxacin. It is prescribed in a dose of 400 - 800 mg for 1 time, the frequency of administration - 2 times a day. The duration of therapy is 5 days. The need to prolong the treatment course is judged solely by the doctor, based on data from a follow-up study. Analogues of the drug: Nolitsin, Norbaktin, Lokson.
- Ofloxacin. Tablets of 200 and 400 mg of the active substance. Take 2 times a day. Dosage - from 200 to 800 mg / day. Do not prescribe the drug to pregnant women and patients with epilepsy. Reception duration is from 5 to 10 days.
- Levofloxacin. One tablet contains 250 or 500 mg of the active ingredient. The drug is prohibited during pregnancy and breastfeeding, epilepsy, tendon damage after the use of other antibacterial drugs. When cystitis is recommended to take this drug in a dose of 250 mg once a day. It is preferable to take pills in the morning. It is necessary to wash down the medicine with at least 0.5 glass of water. The duration of therapy depends on the severity of the disease, but is, on average, 3 to 10 days.
Drugs in this series, besides being effective, are also safe for pregnant women and young children. That is why they are often the doctors stop the choice for the treatment of cystitis in patients of these categories.
- Amoxiclav Tablets and powder for the preparation of oral suspension. The drug may contain different dosages of the active substance, but in the treatment of cystitis, adult patients are prescribed 500 + 125 mg of the drug twice a day. The duration of therapy ranges from 5 days to 2 weeks. More than 14 days to drink the drug is not recommended. It is forbidden to take pills for patients with blood cancer and patients who have had jaundice associated with penicillin therapy. Amoxiclav - a modified version of Amoxicillin. It is distinguished from the previous analogue by the presence of clavulanic acid in the composition, which prolongs the action of the antimicrobial component.
- Amoxicillin (analog - Flemoxin Solutab). It is prescribed in a dose of 500 mg three times a day. The duration of treatment is from 5 to 14 days.
These are synthetic drugs that have a local effect. That is, they are not absorbed into the blood, and do not spread along with it through the body. Although completely eliminate the risk of side effects is also not worth it.
- Nitroxoline (NOK-5). Today, this antiseptic is used less and less, since many microorganisms have developed resistance to it. However, sometimes it is prescribed when conducting a comprehensive treatment of inflammation of the bladder. 1 tablet contains 50 mg of the active substance. It is recommended to take 100 mg of the drug up to 4 times per day. Therapy can last up to 28 days, after which, after a break, the medicine can be applied again. Nitroxoline is prohibited for pregnant women and patients suffering from cataracts.
- Furagin. Tablets of 50 mg, which is recommended to take 1 to 4 pcs. 2 - 3 times a day for 7 - 10 days. The dosage is selected individually, since it is important to take into account the intensity of the inflammatory process and its duration. In chronic cystitis, which is well treatable with furagin, it is recommended to conduct repeated therapeutic courses every 15 days. This approach will help to significantly reduce the frequency of recurrences of cystitis. Furagin is forbidden to take pregnant women and babies under 1 year.
This is a fairly large group of antibacterial drugs with a predominantly broad spectrum of action. Most of these drugs are intended for injection, but there are those that are dispensed in the form of tablets or powder for the preparation of an oral suspension.
Cephalosporins in chronic, often recurrent cystitis, can be prescribed to children and pregnant women who are on the 3rd trimester of gestation.
- Suprax. The only preformed antibiotic of this group. It is widely used in many medical fields, is well tolerated by patients, has a small list of contraindications and almost does not cause side effects. Take 1 tablet (400 mg) once a day for a week. Analogues of the drug - Cefixime, Ceforal, Cemidexor, etc.
- Ceftriaxone is an injectable cephalosporin, which is widely used to treat cystitis in women in the second trimester of pregnancy, as well as in young children. Observance of precautionary measures is necessary in case of using the medication by patients with colitis or other inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. But this is not a strict contraindication, but only a recommendation that you should treat Cefazolin for cystitis with concomitant use of probiotics (Laktimak, Atsidolak, Linex, etc.). The medicine is used for injections or droppers. Medical manipulations are carried out once a day. The duration of therapy is no more than 2 weeks.
Phosphonic acid derivatives
From this group today only one drug is used to treat cystitis - Monural. Its active ingredient is fosfomycin.
The drug is released in the form of granules for dilution with water and the preparation of a drink for oral administration. The daily dosage for adults is 3 g. The powder is diluted with a third cup of warm boiled water. The mixture must be mixed to a uniform consistency, and immediately drink. Take once a day. When treating chronic cystitis, after 48 hours, drink another dose. In case of acute illness, 1 medication is enough.
Less common are not bacterial, but fungal types of cystitis. In this case, they are treated with drugs based on fluconazole. Self-treatment with antimycotics is extremely dangerous, so you need to entrust this question to a competent specialist.
If necessary, cystitis is also used for the symptomatic treatment.
These medicines help reduce the pain that occurs during urination.
- Drotaverinum (No-Shpa). This is the most popular tablets antispasmodic, containing 40 or mg of the active substance Drotaverinum in 1 tab. Take 40 - 80 mg 2 - 3 times a day. The maximum daily dosage is 6 tablets per day, or 3 tablets "Forte". The drug can be prescribed to pregnant women, but with caution, as it can cause autonomic disorders.
- Papaverine. The drug is used preferably in the form of intramuscular or subcutaneous injections with an interval of 4 hours. The medicine is used to relieve acute pain and spasm of smooth muscles of the bladder. After stabilization of the patient's condition, oral administration of Drotaverine tablets is prescribed.
- Spazgan (analogues - He took and Plenalgin). Combined preparation containing antispasmodic and analgesic components. Introduced intramuscularly or intravenously. Intravenous drug is administered at a dose of 2 ml for 2 minutes. Intramuscularly appoint 2 - 5 ml at a time, daily dose - 10 ml.
Phytopreparations can be taken only as an auxiliary method of therapy. As an independent tool, they are not suitable, because they do not give the expected therapeutic effect.
- Canephron - a drug made on the basis of the centaury, lovage and rosemary. It is released in the form of dragees, which must be taken in 2 pieces. 3 times a day. You need to take the medicine for 14 days, but only after the symptoms subside. If the disease is chronic, then after the disappearance of unpleasant symptoms, the drug is recommended to be taken within a month.
- Urolesan is a preparation containing extract of carrot seeds, herbs of oregano and peppermint, hop cones. Additionally, fir oil is included in the encapsulated medication. Dosage - 1 capsule 3 times a day for 5 days. The maximum course of therapy is 30 days. If pains and cramps in the lower abdomen do not pass, and the act of urination remains painful and difficult, you can increase the dosage to 2 capsules 3 times a day for 1 day. After that, you should return to the previous dosage. No medication is prescribed for children under 18, as well as for patients with stones more than 3 mm in diameter in the gallbladder.
- Tsiston - combined herbal remedies, which contains herbal extracts and mummy. You need to drink 2 tablets twice a day. Continue the course of treatment until the urine test results are fully stabilized. The only contraindication to the appointment of an agent is allergic to its individual components.
- Uroprofit is a dietary supplement that is often prescribed by urologists and nephrologists in the treatment of various pathologies of the urinary system. Contains extracts of grass of horsetail and bearberry, cranberries, in addition, it contains vitamin C. Drink 1 capsule twice a day for 21-30 days.
- Fitolysin. This herbal remedy is released in the form of a paste containing herbal extracts and oils. Before taking 5 ml of the paste must be dissolved in a third cup of warm sweetened water. Take up to 4 times a day after meals. The duration of therapy may range from 14 to 45 days. The drug is phototoxic, so for the duration of therapy it is necessary to abandon tanning in the sun or in a tanning bed. Not contraindicated, but this medicine is not recommended for use in pregnant women.
In exceptional cases, resort to the appointment of antidepressants - anxiolytics and sedatives. They are necessary if a patient suffering from cystitis suffers from severe pain or / and insomnia.
Such drugs are sold strictly on prescription, and are taken only according to the scheme developed by him.For this, the urologist may refer the patient to a neurologist or psychotherapist.
Along with the treatment prescribed by the doctor, it is advisable to use alternative medicine. They help to remove excess fluid from the body, relieve pain and arrest the inflammatory processes in the bladder. Usually taking herbal decoctions and infusions gives the result after 3 days from the moment it began.
The most effective are the following herbs:
- Yarrow Dry grass in a dose of 2 tsp. brew a glass of boiling water, insist for an hour. Well strain and take the entire dose throughout the day.
- Parsley. Grind greens with a knife, 2 tbsp. l raw materials pour 500 ml of water. Cover and leave to infuse overnight. In the morning, strain the drug and divide it into 6 parts. The infusion needs to be taken every 3 hours until it ends.
- Hypericum One article l brew a glass of boiled water and put it in a water bath for 15 minutes. Cool, strain and take a quarter glass a day. The finished medicine can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days.
- Freshly squeezed cranberry juice helps to eliminate the inflammatory process. In parallel, the drink has a diuretic effect, and also neutralizes pathogens. Enough to drink 150 ml of fluid per day. If there are no fresh berries, then frozen ones will do.
The above folk remedies are very well combined with the prescribed drug therapy. Comprehensive treatment of cystitis significantly increases the chances of a speedy recovery, and reduces the likelihood of a recurrent unpleasant and dangerous disease.