Anti-mycotic (antifungal) drugs are drugs whose mechanism of action is aimed at neutralizing and completely eradicating pathogenic fungi.
Such pharmaceutical products can have both chemical and natural composition. Antifungal drugs have their own classification, therefore, it is quite difficult to choose the remedy by yourself.
Alas, statistics show that today the need for such medicines has increased significantly. This is due to many different factors, the impact of which is often the result of man’s thoughtless actions.
It is important to remember that antimycotics have a large number of contraindications, and can cause serious side effects. This is especially true of tablets and capsules for oral administration, therefore, without prescription, it is better not to get involved in taking them. Only a specialist can accurately calculate the dosage, and pick up a substitute drug if necessary.
Patients undergoing therapy with antifungal medications should strictly follow all the recommendations of the attending physician. You can not independently change the scheme of therapy and adjust the dosage. Such actions can, at best, reduce all attempts to overcome the disease "to no", and at worst lead to more serious health problems.
How to choose the right medicine?
If the fungus symptoms appear, it is better not to run to the pharmacy for a medicine, but to make an appointment with a dermatologist.
The doctor can determine the type of fungal infection, the degree of skin lesions, and identify symptoms associated with the disease. Based on the data obtained, a drug is selected that will be as effective as possible in a particular situation.
But the patient will not be able to independently perform the necessary diagnostic manipulations. Based on this, do not self-medicate.
Dosage Forms for the Treatment of Onychomycosis
Before you assign a specific antimycotic, you must determine the type of pathogen mycosis. For this, scraping is carried out from the surface of the nail plate or the skin, and the selected material is subjected to thorough laboratory research.
Treatment of onychomycosis can be carried out:
- local preparations (gels, ointments, creams, varnishes, solutions);
- means for oral administration - capsules, tablets.
The use of topical medications does not always give the expected results. Their components do not penetrate well into the lower layers of the nail plate, so it is advisable to use them only for superficial fungi. In addition, before starting therapy, it is recommended to remove or file off the affected nail, which is not always suitable for patients.
A good alternative to sprays and ointments are special medicinal varnishes. They have a multifaceted effect, and have a completely different mechanism of action than other local antimycotics.
Distinctive features of varnishes from a fungus are:
- the presence in their composition of drying components (alcohol, oil extracts, etc.);
- the ability to penetrate into all layers of the nail and spread through them;
- preventing the penetration of air into the nail after hardening of the lacquer, which contributes to the death of the fungal flora;
- the active substance of lacquer leads to destructive processes in the membrane of fungi, as well as in the enzymes produced by them;
- the formation of a protective film on the surface of the nail, which prevents its re-infection.
If onychomycosis occurs in a chronic or complicated form, then, in addition to local, systemic anti-mycotic drugs are prescribed. These drugs are very toxic, so their selection is carried out for each patient separately. In this case, the role is played not only by the type of pathogen, but also by the response of the patient to the specific agent.
The scheme of therapy is based on the use of "shock" doses of drugs short courses. After one therapeutic course, a long break follows, after which the second begins, and so on.
Azoles belong to the group of synthetic anti-mycotic drugs, and are used to treat a fungal infection in the area of the scalp, skin, nails. They are also used in lichen, as well as candidal lesions of the epidermis or mucous membranes.
Below is a list of the most effective and well-known antifungal drugs in this group:
- Ketoconazole. The drug is used to combat dimorphic and yeast-like fungi. They are used to treat folliculitis, dermatophyte, seborrheic dermatitis, chronic candidiasis, depriving. Ketoconazole is used for fungi of the head and skin, if there is an extensive fungal infection and resistance to the infectious process. The drug can cause serious side effects, so it must be applied carefully. This is especially true of children and the elderly. Ketoconazole can be purchased at a price of 100 rubles.
- Mycozoral With the help of this ointment, such diseases as athlete's disease, pityriasis versicolor, ringworm, seborrheic form of dermatitis, various types of candidiasis are treated. Ketoconazole-based drugs are also available in the form of shampoos and oral tablets. Their price starts from 200 rubles.
- Sebozol - shampoo and ointment used to treat fungal infections caused by yeast-like fungi, dimorphitis, staphylococcus and streptococcus. The drug is suitable for the treatment of foot fungus, nails, head. Its cost starts from 130 rubles.
- Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum drug used to treat skin lesions with cryptococcus and candida fungi. Capsules should be taken carefully in pregnant women, as well as in patients with renal and hepatic diseases. The price of the drug - from 20 rubles.
Polyenes are a group of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. These drugs are the most common and often prescribed. In most cases, they are prescribed for fungal lesions of the mucous membranes, skin and gastrointestinal organs.
The most effective drugs are:
- Nystatin. It is released in the form of tablets and ointments, and is used to treat fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes. Use of the drug is advisable for candidal lesions of the vagina, oral cavity, intestines. The drug has almost no contraindications and rarely causes side effects. Its cost is from 40 rubles.
- Levorin. The drug is used for candidiasis of the digestive tract and skin. It is highly effective in the fight against trichomonads, Candida fungi, and also leishmania. The drug is contraindicated in pregnancy, hepatitis B, hepatic and renal failure, pancreatitis, gastric ulcer and duodenum. It should not be used by children under 2 years old. The cost of the drug varies in the range of 100-130 rubles.
- Pimafucin Effective in many types of fungi, and is prescribed for candidal lesions of the digestive tract and vagina. Pimafucin is also used to eliminate fungal infections caused by long-term antibiotics or SCS. The price starts from 250 rubles.
This group of drugs is advisable to use for ringworms - fungal infections of the hair, nails and skin. The most popular drug of this group is Terbinafine, dispensed in the form of ointment and cream. Used to treat fungal infections of the nails and skin. Effective with dimorphic and mold fungi.
The medicine is prescribed for treating the skin of the legs, head and body. Its use is also advisable for nail fungus. Cost - from 48 rubles.
Broad Spectrum Antifungal Drugs
This group of drugs has a fungicidal and fungistatic effect. They prevent the further development of fungal infections, as well as destroy the remaining fungi.
The mechanism of action of drugs depends on their active ingredients.
- Ketoconazole, which prevents the synthesis of components of the cell membranes of fungi. The most effective drugs are Oronazole, Mycozoral, Fungavis.
- Griseofulvin, stopping the division of fungal cells.
- Itraconazole - allows the formation of fungal cells. The most effective representatives of this group are Irunin, Orunit, Orungal.
- Terbinafine interrupts the synthesis of fungal cells in the initial stage.
- Fluconazole is a substance that prevents the formation of new fungal spores and neutralizes those that already exist. This group includes drugs: Micomax, Diflucan and Fluxtat.
Antifungal drugs have a lot of contraindications, the most frequent of which include:
- chronic renal and hepatic diseases in severe form;
- the period of pregnancy and HB;
- glucose-galactose malabsorption;
- individual lactose intolerance;
- the use of certain groups of medical preparations;
- individual intolerance to one or more components of the drug.
Based on these contraindications, the appointment of systemic antimycotics can only be done by a doctor.
Antifungal nail polishes
This group of antimycotic drugs can be used in isolation or as part of a comprehensive treatment. The most effective varnishes are:
- Mikozan The drug can be used for extensive fungal lesions of the nail plate.
- Loceril. The drug quickly relieves a fungal infection, even in the later stages of its development.
- Batrafen. Varnish can be used to treat advanced onychomycosis. It removes well the unpleasant symptoms of pathology, and has a pleasant aroma.
- Neil Expert. It is advisable to use this product when yeast-like mushrooms are affected by nails. It slows the growth of microorganisms and prevents their further spread.
- Demicten This varnish can be used in parallel with other local antimycotics. The drug is effective in extensive lesions of the nail plate.
- Gazebo. The medicine is used to disinfect nails after the fungal treatment has been completed. It eliminates unpleasant odor and inflammation.
Before applying the nail, the nail must be cut down and treated with an antiseptic (ordinary alcohol will do). After that the medicine is applied, which dries out within a few minutes. How often antifungal lacquer can be applied can only be told by the attending physician.
Antifungal solutions (drops) and sprays
These drugs can be used both independently and in parallel with other antimycotics. They contain active ingredients from the anzole and allylamine groups.
Often doctors resort to the appointment of antifungal drops:
Among the sprays are very popular:
Apply drops and sprays on the pre-cleansed skin and nail. Frequency of use - 1-2 times a day. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor individually for each patient.
How to choose the right treatment methods?
The method of treatment depends on the type of pathogen and the stage of the pathological process. Thus, with the defeat of the epidermis, therapy is carried out using local antimycotics.
Onychomycoses require an integrated approach, although they are often treated with one of the following options: local antifungal therapy, cleaning and cutting off the affected nail, or systemic antifungal medication.
The first signs of fungal infections of the skin and nails should be a good reason to immediately contact a dermatologist. And although mycoses do not pose a serious danger to human health, they significantly impair the quality of life. In addition, they are easily transmitted to other people, so they must be treated necessarily.
Moreover, therapy at the initial stages of mycosis does not take much time, and does not require significant financial costs.