Excessive concentration of cholesterol in human blood is a serious threat to his health.
The substance moves freely in the bloodstream, and is able to settle on the vascular walls, forming the so-called cholesterol plaques. They, in turn, threaten the narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessels and the development of such dangerous diseases as heart attack and stroke.
In elderly people, patients with vascular aneurysm, as well as in persons who have previously suffered a heart attack or stroke, vasoconstriction may cause more serious harm to health, and cause the development of other pathologies of the cardiovascular system. To reduce this risk, you need to resort to drugs that lower cholesterol levels in the blood.
However, cholesterol tablets should be prescribed exclusively by a competent specialist. Their uncontrolled use and neglect of contraindications can lead to unpredictable consequences, and significantly complicate the patient's condition. But do not forget that together with conservative therapy, or in the absence of the need for such, the patient should reconsider his menu, and make some adjustments to his lifestyle.
How to reduce high cholesterol?
To reduce cholesterol in the blood, first of all, the patient must abandon the majority of harmful products. Maintaining normal blood vessel tone is also very important, so do not forget about the benefits of sports and walks in the fresh air.
The course of conservative therapy with high cholesterol is quite long, and the patient should be ready for this. At the same time, it is important for the patient to comply with all prescriptions and instructions of the attending physician in order to stabilize the condition without harming his own health.
So, to lower cholesterol in the blood you need:
- to refuse from bad habits;
- reduce salt intake;
- eliminate or reduce the amount of consumed fatty foods;
- give preference to vegetable fats instead of animals;
- Enrich the menu with products rich in fiber;
- consume enough complex carbohydrates;
- Be sure to include in the diet foods rich in polyunsaturated acids.
The list of prohibited products includes:
- different types of sausages (including sausages and wieners);
The correct approach to the issue of nutrition with elevated cholesterol will not only help to "bring down" its indicators, but also contribute to improving the overall well-being of a person.
Most (80%) cholesterol is found in the liver cells, and only 20% is ingested with food. But a correct and balanced menu can contribute to the normalization and a significant decrease in the concentration of the substance in the blood.
The principles of treatment that should guide each patient are:
- weight loss;
- daily sports activities;
- careful control of calories consumed per day;
- rejection of alcohol and cigarettes;
- avoidance of stressful situations and psycho-emotional shocks.
To significantly reduce the concentration of this substance in the blood and prevent the formation of cholesterol plaques, you can use special herbal preparations and dietary supplements. So, with the help of sufficient intake of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the risk of thrombus formation on the walls of blood vessels is reduced.
In some situations, adjustments made to the rhythm of life and the patient's menu do not help to get rid of elevated cholesterol. In this case, the only way out is to resort to the use of special medications, which, however, can only be prescribed by a doctor!
To lower the concentration of cholesterol in the blood of a patient, doctors prescribe, as a rule, tablets. They are divided into 5 groups:
- Statins. This group of drugs prescribed by doctors if the cholesterol level is too high, and it should be immediately reduced. These are quite effective drugs, the effectiveness of which can be noted already 14 days after the start of treatment. Statins can be taken over a long period of time.
- Fibrates. This group of drugs is aimed at increasing the amount of "good" cholesterol in the human body. Thanks to their reception significantly reduces the risk of adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.
- Absorption inhibitor. Such a drug does not allow cholesterol to be absorbed in the intestine, but at the same time it does not penetrate into the blood. It is most suitable for patients who are hypersensitive to statins.
- A nicotinic acid. Drugs based on it have a complex effect on the patient's body: they remove the excess "harmful" cholesterol, while increasing the level of "beneficial", and also normalize the blood microcirculation. It is possible to notice the first positive dynamics from treatment in a few days.
- Dietary supplements considered universal means, widely used in the fight against high cholesterol. They have virtually no contraindications, "knocking" high rates of "bad" cholesterol and increasing the level of "good."
All of the above groups of drugs from high cholesterol differ from each other in their composition and principle of effects on the body. Each of these drug groups has its pros, cons, and side reactions that you need to be aware of.
The best cholesterol pills
In order to understand which drugs deserve special attention, we will briefly consider the most effective ones depending on which of the above described drug groups they belong to.
Statins to lower cholesterol
Before deciding to take statins, it is important to understand what these drugs are. These are chemical elements that inhibit the natural production of enzymes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol.
If you believe the instructions for use, the therapeutic effect of statins is achieved by:
- reducing the concentration of cholesterol in the blood plasma by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and partially blocking the production of this substance by the liver cells;
- reducing cholesterol in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, which is not cured by taking drugs that inhibit lipid production;
- lowering total cholesterol by 30-45%, and, in particular, "harmful" - by 40-60%;
- reduce the risk of ischemic processes in blood vessels by 15-25%;
- lack of carcinogenic or mutagenic effect.
Statins can also cause various side effects in the form of:
- sleep disorders;
- asthenic syndrome;
- impaired stool;
- abdominal pains;
- bloating and flatulence;
- muscle aches;
- general malaise;
- memory impairment;
- peripheral neuropathy;
- impaired stool;
- hepatitis development;
- cholestatic jaundice;
- muscle cramps;
- articular arthritis;
- skin allergic reactions: rash, urticaria, anaphylaxis;
- weight gain;
- the development of obesity, etc.
In men, taking statins can cause the development of impotence.
When do I need to take statins?
Despite the assurances of advertising and manufacturers, the complete safety of such drugs for patients today is unproven. If we talk about the ratio of benefits and harm of statins, then some researchers emphasize that the risk of side effects is much greater than the positive effect of their admission, especially if it is used to prevent cardiovascular diseases in hypercholesterolemia.
However, for some categories of patients, this group of drugs is essential. The latest generation of statins are shown for mandatory use in order to:
- prevent a recurrence of a heart attack or stroke;
- recovery after undergoing reconstructive surgery on the heart or large blood vessels (or in preparation for such);
- speeding up the process of recovery from a heart attack or acute coronary syndrome;
These drugs are also needed for CHD with a high risk of heart attack or stroke.
It is strongly recommended not to use statins for patients:
- with a low risk of complications of hypercholesterolemia;
- suffering from diabetes;
- women who are not on the threshold of menopause.
When using statins, it is important to consider their compatibility with other drugs.
Studies of the effects of statins on the body
Scientists from different countries have their own point of view on the advisability of prescribing these drugs with high cholesterol.
- German researchers have shown that lowered cholesterol levels lead to the development of cancer and dangerous liver pathologies. They claim that hypocholesterolemia leads to early death, and also increases the number of suicides. Therefore, such a condition is more dangerous than a high concentration of cholesterol in human blood.
- American scientists claim that heart attacks and strokes are not the result of a reduced cholesterol concentration. The main causes of these pathologies, researchers believe magnesium deficiency in the human body.
- Cholesterol is a substance that promotes the regeneration of damaged tissues. The use of statins inhibits this function, since even "bad" cholesterol is beneficial to humans. It helps build muscle mass, but its deficiency can lead to muscle pain and dystrophy.
- Taking statins inhibits cholesterol synthesis, which reduces the production of mevalonate. This substance is responsible for the production of cholesterol and many other beneficial elements. Their deficiency can lead to the development of various dangerous pathologies.
- Statins increase the risk of developing diabetes. Its occurrence is observed in 10-70% of patients undergoing treatment with the use of this group of drugs. And diabetes, in turn, causes an uncontrolled increase in blood cholesterol levels.
- Side effects from the use of statins develop extremely slowly, so at first the patient may not notice them. This is a serious threat to his health if such drugs are taken over a long period of time.
- Statins have a pernicious effect on the liver. People suffering from obesity, there is a temporary improvement in the condition of blood vessels, but over time there is a violation in the brain, especially in elderly patients.
If elevated cholesterol levels are found in people under 50 years of age, this indicates a serious malfunction in the body, requiring immediate medical intervention. In some countries, the prevention of such a condition is promoted through the rejection of bad habits, maintaining a healthy way of life and the elimination of statins.
The appointment of statins to older people
When studying the effect of this group of drugs on patients over 60 years of age, muscle pain was observed in 30% of cases. Patients complain of fatigue, lethargy and decreased muscle tone. Pain in the area of skeletal muscles occurred mainly in patients who had just started taking the drug.
Based on the foregoing, the majority of people suffering from hypercholesterolemia, there is a decrease in mental and physical activity for 40 minutes a week. Due to muscle weakness, patients lose interest in doing sports, and even ordinary walks. This, in turn, increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Statins - a list of drugs
The following high-performance statins for lowering cholesterol can be bought at pharmacies in Russia:
- Rosuvastatin, which reduces cholesterol levels by 55%.
- Atorvastatin, which reduces the level by 47%.
- Simvastatin (38%).
- Fluvastatin (29%) and others.
A complete list of high cholesterol drugs can be found below:
|Drug name||Release form||The price is average|
in pharmacies (2018)
|Atomax||10 mg. tab. 30 pieces||360-380 rubles|
|Atorvastatin Canon||10 mg. Table 30 pcs.||260 -280 rub.|
|Atoris||30 mg. Table 30 pcs.||450-480 rubles|
|Liprimar||10 mg. Table 30 pcs.||800 rub.|
|Torvacard||10 mg. table 30 pcs||270-300 rubles|
|Tulip||10 mg. tab. 30 pieces||260-280 rub.|
|Liptonorm||20 mg. tab. 30 pieces||260-280 rub.|
|Akorta||10 mg. tab.30 pcs||500 rub.|
|Crestor||10 mg. tab. 7 pieces||650 rub.|
|Crestor||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||2500 rub.|
|Merten||5 mg. tab. 30 pieces||450 rub.|
|Rosuvastatin||10 mg. tab. 30 pieces||290 rub.|
|Roscard||10 mg. tab. 90 pieces||1400 rub.|
|Rosulip||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||700 rub.|
|Roxera||10 mg. tab. 30 pieces||500 rub.|
|Tevastor||5 mg. tab. 30 pieces||350 rub.|
|Vasilip||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||280 rub.|
|Zokor||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||160 rub.|
|Avenkor||20 mg. tab. 30 pieces||550 rub.|
|Simvagexal||20 mg. tab. 30 pieces||330 rub.|
|Simvacard||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||220 rub.|
|Simvastatin||10 mg. tab. 20 pieces||180 rub.|
|Simvastol||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||200 rub.|
|Simvor||20 mg. tab. 30 pieces||300 rub.|
|Simgal||40 mg. tab. 84 pieces||800 rub.|
|Simlo||10 mg. tab. 28 pieces||180 rub.|
|Sincard||10 mg. tab. 30 pieces||350 rub.|
|Cardiostatin||20 mg. tab. 30 pieces||280 rub.|
|Choletar||20 mg. tab. 20 pieces||320 rub.|
|Cardiostatin||40 mg. tab. 30 pieces||400 rub.|
|Leskol Forte||80 mg. tab. 28 pieces||2700 rub.|
Whether it is necessary to take statins or it is better to refuse them - the patient himself should decide on the basis of recommendations of the attending physician. If the patient, nevertheless, decided on such therapy, then one should not select the drug on his own - this should be done exclusively by a specialist, taking into account all possible risks and the presence of chronic pathologies in a person.
Fibrates are medicines that are the production of fibric acid. Like the statins, they are successfully used to combat high cholesterol. By binding to bile acid, these substances significantly inhibit the process of cholesterol synthesis by the liver cells.
Fenofibrates help reduce the level of lipids in the body, which automatically leads to a decrease in the amount of cholesterol. Together with cyprofibrates, they reduce the risk of developing extravascular complications of hypercholesterolemia, since they normalize not only cholesterol, but also triglyceride levels.
The most effective and well-known fenofibrates include drugs:
- Exlip 200 and d.
But it is necessary to decide on the purchase of a certain means if the health benefit / harm ratio has been determined. Such drugs can cause a number of side effects, the most frequent of which include:
- bloating accompanied by flatulence;
- hepatitis development;
- the formation of stones in the gallbladder or its ducts;
- diffuse myalgia;
- muscle spasms;
- disorders in the sexual sphere;
- pulmonary embolus;
- skin rash;
- allergic urticaria;
- body itching;
To reduce the negative effects of statins on the body, they can and should be used in conjunction with fibrates.
Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors
Ezetemib (Ezeterol) - a new drug that reduces the level of lipids in the body. Due to this, the process of absorption of cholesterol in the intestine is inhibited.
In addition, Ezetemib, unlike Orsoten and other similar drugs, rarely leads to the development of diarrhea. The maximum allowable daily dose of the drug is 10 g.
In addition to lowering cholesterol, niacin helps:
- improve blood circulation;
- the establishment of a metabolic process;
- preventing the development of beriberi;
- elimination of toxins from the body.
This group of medications can be used both independently and as part of complex therapy. It is best to use nicotinic acid or its derivatives with high cholesterol.
After prior consultation with the doctor, the patient may try to lower cholesterol levels with dietary supplements.
|Drug name||Release form||The price is average|
in pharmacies (summer 2013)
|Omega Forte||30 tablets||130-140 rubles|
|Doppelgerz omega 3||30 capsules||210-250 rub.|
|Tykveol||50 tablets||190-200 rub.|
|Lipoic acid||50 tablets||30 rub.|
|SievePren (BAA)||60 tablets||600 rub.|
However, dietary supplements and homeopathic medicines are not suitable for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, since they have a rather weak effect on the body. If it is necessary to prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases or premature death, it is better, nevertheless, to resort to taking statins.
The list of dietary supplements that can be used with high cholesterol:
- Preparations containing Omega-3 (fish oil, Omega-3, Okeanol, etc.) prevent heart and vessel pathologies, strengthen joints, and reduce the risk of depression. It is necessary to take such drugs with extreme caution, since they increase the risk of developing chronic pancreatitis.
- Lipoic acid has a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Its reception contributes to the improvement of trophic neurons and an increase in the level of hepatic glycogen.
- Tykveol is a medicine based on pumpkin seed oil. It is especially useful in atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, cholecystitis, and hepatitis. The drug has choleretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects.
- Vitamin compounds. Especially necessary for high cholesterol group B vitamins: B6, B9, B12 and nicotinic acid. In this case, it is not only about pharmaceutical preparations - to normalize lipid metabolism, you need to use products containing the above substances.
- Polyconazole. It is a dietary supplement containing vegetable wax extract. Helps to prevent vascular atherosclerosis and lower low-density cholesterol.
Drugs that reduce the concentration of cholesterol, have a lot of disadvantages, because they can cause a number of unpleasant side effects. For this reason, the opinions of doctors about their use radically diverge.
Moreover, neither statins nor any other drugs are recommended for patients younger than 35 years old. Since women are less susceptible to the development of cardiovascular diseases, it is better for them to refrain from cholesterol lowering drugs. To get rid of the existing problem, it is necessary to make certain adjustments to the diet and change lifestyle.
But there are cases when taking pills is extremely necessary to stabilize the patient's condition. Under such circumstances, a specific medicine can be prescribed exclusively by a specialist!
In addition to drug therapy, it is important to eliminate bad habits and exercise therapy. Only then will the chances of recovery increase significantly!